THE GNADENHUTTEN MASSACRE

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© Gibbs Smith Education—Illustration by Gary Rasmussen

The Moravians returned to Gnadenhutten to harvest crops they left behind.

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© 1855 volume Historical Collections of the Great West

The militia accused the group of Moravian Indians and executed 96 of them, regardless of their pleas.

RESEARCH QUESTIONS

  • Why did the Gnadenhutten Massacre happen to these Christian converts who were neutral?

  • How are acts of violence inflicted on Native Americans described in various historical sources?

RESEARCH SOURCES

Primary Sources

  1. A selection of 19th century newspaper articles on the Gnadenhutten Massacre

    • 9 newspaper articles with 11,523 total words and 2,625 unique word forms.

    • Dated 1826-1886​

  2. Correspondence of Continental Congress Members

    • ​8 volumes with 2,697,898 total words and 44,217 unique word forms

    • Dated 1774-1787

  3. American State Papers - Indian Affairs

    • ​107 official documents with 117,102 total words and 8,686 unique word forms.

    • Dated early 19th century, primarily 1815-1816

Secondary Sources

Multiple books and scholarly articles on Gnadenhutten massacre, and on the broader context of American-Indian War and American Revolutionary War.

            TEAM MEMBERS
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  SHEZEREH HUSSAIN

Shezereh is a Senior at UCLA majoring in Economics with minors in Theater and Digital Humanities. For this project she worked on the website creating the general layout, design, format and pages. She also specifically analyzed the correspondence documents related to the massacre using Voyant Tools. 

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     UNG LIK TENG

Ung is a junior at UCLA double majoring in Statistics and Political Science. He's an avid political poll watcher, Pythonistas and boba connoisseur. He uses Word2Vec model to examine themes and patterns within newspaper reporting of the Gnadenhutten Massacre.

HELEN HUANG (XIN)
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Helen is a junior Marine Biology major student in UCLA, with minors in Bioinformatics and Digital Humanities. She summarized the theories from scholarly articles, analyzed the correspondence documents and 19th Century newspapers via Voyant Tools, and conducted topic modeling on the correspondence. She also collected images and helped format the website.

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HENNA DIALANI 

Henna is a fourth-year Statistics student minoring in Digital Humanities and Mathematics. She found many of the primary sources to analyze for this project, and wrote some of the content on the website. She also conducted topic modelling, collocate and bigram analyses on the congressmen correspondence. 

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ROCIO SANCHEZ-NOLASCO

Rocio is a senior at UCLA majoring in Art History with a Digital Humanities minor. She helped find several primary sources on the Gnadenhutten massacre. She also authored content for the "Project Overview" section of  the website and analyzed the American State Papers on Indian Affairs.

NANCY PAUCAR
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Nancy is a sophomore pre-Economics major student, applying for the DH minor in Spring 2019. She used Recogito, an annotation tool for texts, to analyze the geographical locations mentioned in the newpaper documents used for the project.  She also used Voyant tools to analyze the the trends and themes associated with the geographical locations of the newspaper documents.